Current situation of endemic mycosis in the Americas and the Caribbean: Proceedings of the first international meeting on endemic mycoses of the Americas (IMEMA).
BACKGROUND: The Americas are home to biologically and clinically diverse endemic fungi, including Blastomyces, Coccidioides, Emergomyces, Histoplasma, Paracoccidioides and Sporothrix. In endemic areas with high risk of infection, these fungal pathogens represent an important public health problem. OBJECTIVES: This report aims to summarise the main findings of the regional analysis carried out on the status of the endemic mycoses of the Americas, done at the first International Meeting on Endemic Mycoses of the Americas (IMEMA). METHODS: A regional analysis for the Americas was done, the 27 territories were grouped into nine regions. A SWOT analysis was done. RESULTS: All territories reported availability of microscopy. Seventy percent of territories reported antibody testing, 67% of territories reported availability of Histoplasma antigen testing. None of the territories reported the use of (1-3)-β-d-glucan. Fifty two percent of territories reported the availability of PCR testing in reference centres (mostly for histoplasmosis). Most of the territories reported access to medications such as trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, itraconazole, voriconazole and amphotericin B (AMB) deoxycholate. Many countries had limited access to liposomal formulation of AMB and newer azoles, such as posaconazole and isavuconazole. Surveillance of these fungal diseases was minimal. CONCLUSIONS: A consensus emerged among meeting participants, this group concluded that endemic mycoses are neglected diseases, and due to their severity and lack of resources, the improvement of diagnosis, treatment and surveillance is needed.
Caceres, DH; Echeverri Tirado, LC; Bonifaz, A; Adenis, A; Gomez, BL; Flores, CLB; Canteros, CE; Santos, DW; Arathoon, E; Soto, ER; Queiroz-Telles, F; Schwartz, IS; Zurita, J; Damasceno, LS; Garcia, N; Fernandez, NB; Chincha, O; Araujo, P; Rabagliati, R; Chiller, T; Giusiano, G
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