The current status of the diversity pipeline in surgical training.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

OBJECTIVE: Recent initiatives have emphasized the importance of diversity, equity, and inclusion in academic surgery. Racial/ethnic disparities remain prevalent throughout surgical training, and the "diversity pipeline" in resident recruitment and retention remains poorly defined. METHODS: Data was retrospectively collected using two separate datasets. The Association of American Medical Colleges database was used to obtain demographic data on US medical school graduates. The US Graduate Medical Education annual report was used to obtain demographic data on surgical residents. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare racial/ethnic distribution within surgical residency programs with graduating medical students. Linear regression analysis was performed to analyze population trends over time. RESULTS: The study population included 184,690 surgical residents from 2011 to 2020. Nine resident cohorts were created according to surgical specialty - general surgery, neurosurgery, ophthalmology, orthopedic surgery, otolaryngology, plastic surgery, cardiothoracic surgery, urology, and vascular surgery. Among surgical programs, White residents were overrepresented in 8 of 9 specialties compared to the concurrent graduating medical student class for all years (p < 0.01 each, no difference in ophthalmology). Black residents were underrepresented in 8 of 9 specialties (p < 0.01 each, no difference in general surgery). Asian representation was mixed among specialties (4 overrepresented, 1 equal, 4 underrepresented), as was Hispanic representation (5 overrepresented, 4 equal) (p < 0.01 each). CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that racial/ethnic disparities are inherent to the process of recruitment and retention of surgical residents. Efforts to improve the "diversity pipeline" should focus on mentorship and development of minority medical students and creating an equitable learning environment.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Kim, Y; Kassam, A-F; McElroy, IE; Lee, S; Tanious, A; Chou, EL; Patel, SS; Pendleton, AA; Dua, A

Published Date

  • July 2022

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 224 / 1 Pt B

Start / End Page

  • 250 - 256

PubMed ID

  • 34776239

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1879-1883

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1016/j.amjsurg.2021.11.006


  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States