Let's talk about sex characteristics-As a risk factor for invasive fungal diseases.

Journal Article (Journal Article;Review)

Biological sex, which comprises differences in host sex hormone homeostasis and immune responses, can have a substantial impact on the epidemiology of infectious diseases. Comprehensive data on sex distributions in invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) are lacking. In this review, we performed a literature search of in vitro/animal studies, clinical studies, systematic reviews and meta-analyses of invasive fungal infections. Females represented 51.2% of invasive candidiasis cases, mostly matching the proportions of females among the general population in the United States and Europe (>51%). In contrast, other IFDs were overrepresented in males, including invasive aspergillosis (51% males), mucormycosis (60%), cryptococcosis (74%), coccidioidomycosis (70%), histoplasmosis (61%) and blastomycosis (66%). Behavioural variations, as well as differences related to biological sex, may only in part explain these findings. Further investigations concerning the association between biological sex/gender and the pathogenesis of IFDs are warranted.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Egger, M; Hoenigl, M; Thompson, GR; Carvalho, A; Jenks, JD

Published Date

  • June 2022

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 65 / 6

Start / End Page

  • 599 - 612

PubMed ID

  • 35484713

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1439-0507

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1111/myc.13449


  • eng

Conference Location

  • Germany