Risk factors and outcomes of culture-proven acute Coccidioides spp. infection in San Diego, California, United States.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

BACKGROUND: Coccidioides spp. are dimorphic fungi endemic to parts of the United States, Mexico, Central and South America. Infection can cause a range of disease from self-limited acute pneumonia to severe disseminated disease. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of medical records of cases of culture-proven acute coccidioidomycosis at the University of California San Diego between 1 April 2015 and 31 December 2019 and described the demographics, risk factors and outcomes of these cases. RESULTS: Over the study period, fifteen evaluable cases of culture-proven acute coccidioidomycosis were identified. Of these, 87% (13/15) had traditional risk factors for coccidioidomycosis infection while two lacked known risk factors, including one patient with cirrhosis and one with chronic hepatitis C infection. Seven of fifteen (47%) had primary coccidioidomycosis of the lungs without dissemination and 7/15 (47%) disseminated disease. Of those with disseminated disease, 6/7 (86%) had either high-risk ethnicity or blood type as their only risk factor. At 90 days, 11/15 (73%) were alive, 3/15 (20%) deceased and 1/15 (7%) lost to follow-up. Of those not alive at 90 days, 1/3 (33%) had disseminated disease and 2/3 (67%) primary coccidioidomycosis, both on immunosuppressive therapy. DISCUSSION: Coccidioides spp. infection occurs in a variety of hosts with varying underlying risk factors, with the majority in our cohort overall and 86% with disseminated disease lacking traditional risk factors for invasive fungal infection other than ethnicity and/or blood phenotype. Clinicians should be aware of these non-traditional risk factors in patients with coccidioidomycosis infection.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Jenks, JD; Reed, SL; Hoenigl, M

Published Date

  • June 2020

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 63 / 6

Start / End Page

  • 553 - 557

PubMed ID

  • 32176829

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1439-0507

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1111/myc.13074

Language

  • eng

Conference Location

  • Germany