Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation: The Past, Present, and Future Considerations.
Journal Article (Review;Journal Article)
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) has been understood as a consumptive coagulopathy. However, impaired hemostasis is a component of DIC that occurs in a progressive manner. The critical concept of DIC is systemic activation of coagulation with vascular endothelial damage. DIC is the dynamic coagulation/fibrinolysis disorder that can proceed from compensated to decompensated phases, and is not simply impaired hemostasis, a misunderstanding that continues to evoke confusion among clinicians. DIC is a critical step of disease progression that is important to monitor over time. Impaired microcirculation and subsequent organ failure due to pathologic microthrombi formation are the pathophysiologies in sepsis-associated DIC. Impaired hemostasis due to coagulation factor depletion from hemodilution, shock, and hyperfibrinolysis occurs in trauma-associated DIC. Overt-DIC diagnostic criteria have been used clinically for more than 20 years but may not be adequate to detect the compensated phase of DIC, and due to different underlying causes, there is no "one-size-fits-all criteria." Individualized criteria for heterogeneous conditions continue to be proposed to facilitate the diagnosis. We believe that future research will provide therapeutics using new diagnostic criteria. Finally, DIC is also classified as either acute or chronic, and acute DIC results from progressive coagulation activation over a short time and requires urgent management. In this review, we examine the advances in research for DIC.
- Iba, T; Levi, M; Thachil, J; Levy, JH
- November 2022
Volume / Issue
- 48 / 8
Start / End Page
- 978 - 987
Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
- United States