The Role of T Helper Type 2 (Th2) Cytokines in the Pathogenesis of Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (eGPA): an Illustrative Case and Discussion.

Journal Article (Journal Article;Review)

PURPOSEOF REVIEW: The pathogenesis of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (eGPA) is driven largely by CD4 + type 2 helper T cells (Th2), B cells, and eosinophils. Interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 are critical cytokines in Th2 cell-mediated inflammation; however, inhibition of IL-4 and IL-13 does not reduce serum eosinophil counts and has even been associated with hypereosinophilia. This review explores the role of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 in Th2-mediated inflammation to consider the potential clinical consequences of inhibiting these individual cytokines in eGPA. RECENT FINDINGS: Treatments for eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (eGPA) are rapidly evolving through using biologic therapies to modulate the Th2 inflammatory response via eosinophil inhibition. While IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and IL-25 can all affect eosinophils, only IL-5 inhibition has demonstrated therapeutic benefit to-date. In this review, we report a clinical vignette of a patient with adult-onset asthma who developed severe manifestations of eGPA after switching from mepolizumab (an IL-5 inhibitor) to dupilumab (an inhibitor of IL-4 and IL-13). By understanding the role of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 in Th2-mediated vasculitis, we can start to understand how eGPA might respond differently to focused cytokine inhibition.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Milne, ME; Kimball, J; Tarrant, TK; Al-Rohil, RN; Leverenz, DL

Published Date

  • November 2022

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 22 / 11

Start / End Page

  • 141 - 150

PubMed ID

  • 36103081

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC9471022

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1534-6315

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1007/s11882-022-01039-w


  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States