The Role of T Helper Type 2 (Th2) Cytokines in the Pathogenesis of Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (eGPA): an Illustrative Case and Discussion.
Journal Article (Journal Article;Review)
PURPOSEOF REVIEW: The pathogenesis of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (eGPA) is driven largely by CD4 + type 2 helper T cells (Th2), B cells, and eosinophils. Interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 are critical cytokines in Th2 cell-mediated inflammation; however, inhibition of IL-4 and IL-13 does not reduce serum eosinophil counts and has even been associated with hypereosinophilia. This review explores the role of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 in Th2-mediated inflammation to consider the potential clinical consequences of inhibiting these individual cytokines in eGPA. RECENT FINDINGS: Treatments for eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (eGPA) are rapidly evolving through using biologic therapies to modulate the Th2 inflammatory response via eosinophil inhibition. While IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and IL-25 can all affect eosinophils, only IL-5 inhibition has demonstrated therapeutic benefit to-date. In this review, we report a clinical vignette of a patient with adult-onset asthma who developed severe manifestations of eGPA after switching from mepolizumab (an IL-5 inhibitor) to dupilumab (an inhibitor of IL-4 and IL-13). By understanding the role of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 in Th2-mediated vasculitis, we can start to understand how eGPA might respond differently to focused cytokine inhibition.
- Milne, ME; Kimball, J; Tarrant, TK; Al-Rohil, RN; Leverenz, DL
- November 2022
Volume / Issue
- 22 / 11
Start / End Page
- 141 - 150
Pubmed Central ID
Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
- United States