Multimodality analysis confers a prognostic benefit of a T-cell infiltrated tumor microenvironment and peripheral immune status in patients with melanoma.

Journal Article (Clinical Trial;Journal Article)

BACKGROUND: We previously reported results from a phase 1 study testing intratumoral recombinant poliovirus, lerapolturev, in 12 melanoma patients. All 12 patients received anti-PD-1 systemic therapy before lerapolturev, and 11 of these 12 patients also received anti-PD-1 after lerapolturev. In preclinical models lerapolturev induces intratumoral innate inflammation that engages antitumor T cells. In the current study, prelerapolturev and postlerapolturev tumor biopsies and blood were evaluated for biomarkers of response. METHODS: The following analyses were performed on tumor tissue (n=11): (1) flow cytometric assessment of immune cell density, (2) NanoString Digital Spatial profiling of protein and the transcriptome, and (3) bulk RNA sequencing. Immune cell phenotypes and responsiveness to in vitro stimulation, including in vitro lerapolturev challenge, were measured in peripheral blood (n=12). RESULTS: Three patients who received anti-PD-1 therapy within 30 days of lerapolturev have a current median progression-free survival (PFS) of 2.3 years and had higher CD8+T cell infiltrates in prelerapolturev tumor biopsies relative to that of 7 patients with median PFS of 1.6 months and lower CD8+T cell infiltrates in prelerapolturev tumor biopsies. In peripheral blood, four patients with PFS 2.3 years (including three that received anti-PD-1 therapy within 30 days before lerapolturev and had higher pretreatment tumor CD8+T cell infiltrates) had significantly higher effector memory (CD8+, CCR7-, CD45RA-) but lower CD8+PD-1+ and CD4+PD-1+ cells compared with eight patients with median PFS 1.6 months. In addition, pretreatment blood from the four patients with median PFS 2.3 years had more potent antiviral responses to in vitro lerapolturev challenge compared with eight patients with median PFS 1.6 months. CONCLUSION: An inflamed pretreatment tumor microenvironment, possibly induced by prior anti-PD-1 therapy and a proficient peripheral blood pretreatment innate immune response (antiviral/interferon signaling) to lerapolturev was associated with long term PFS after intratumoral lerapolturev in a small cohort of patients. These findings imply a link between intratumoral T cell inflammation and peripheral immune function. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03712358.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Beasley, GM; Brown, MC; Farrow, NE; Landa, K; Al-Rohil, RN; Selim, MA; Therien, AD; Jung, S-H; Gao, J; Boczkowski, D; Holl, EK; Salama, AKS; Bigner, DD; Gromeier, M; Nair, SK

Published Date

  • September 2022

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 10 / 9

PubMed ID

  • 36175036

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC9528663

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 2051-1426

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1136/jitc-2022-005052


  • eng

Conference Location

  • England