Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Megaprosthetic Reconstructions: Drug and Dosing May Matter More than Duration.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

In orthopedic oncology, the implant of a megaprosthetic device is standard of care after large-scale tumor resection involving segmental removal of bone. Infection remains the leading cause of implant failure, often resulting in major morbidity. Perioperative antibiotic practices for megaprosthetic reconstructions are not standardized and are based on guidelines for conventional joint arthroplasties. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of current prophylactic strategies for megaprosthetic reconstructions. We conducted a retrospective review of megaprosthetic reconstructions performed at Duke University from 2001 to 2021. Logistic regression with GEE was used to assess whether a prolonged course of postoperative antibiotics is associated with infection risk. We assessed the microbial profile and corresponding susceptibilities of megaprosthetic infections through record review. Additionally, we designed a pharmacokinetic subgroup analysis using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to quantify antibiotic concentrations in surgical tissue. Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were used to correlate tissue concentrations with infection risk. Out of 184 cases, 23 (12.5%) developed infection within 1 year. Extended postoperative antibiotics were not significantly associated with infection risk (P = 0.23). Among 18 culture-positive cases, 4 (22.2%) were caused by cefazolin-susceptible organisms. Median bone and muscle concentrations of cefazolin among cases that developed postoperative infection (0.065 ng/mL and 0.2 ng/mL, respectively) were significantly lower than those of cases that did not (0.42 ng/mL and 1.95 ng/mL, P < 0.01 and P = 0.03). This study is the first to comprehensively assess aspects of perioperative prophylaxis for megaprosthetic reconstructions. Extending postoperative antibiotics did not reduce infection risk. We detected a high frequency of cefazolin nonsusceptible organisms among postoperative infections. Additionally, intraoperative antibiotic tissue concentrations may be predictive of later infection. Future studies ought to examine optimal drug choices and dosing strategies.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Byers, IS; Turner, NA; Levine, NL; Lazarides, AL; Evans, DR; Spasojevic, I; Fan, P; Jung, S-H; Gao, J; Visgauss, JD; Brigman, BE; Eward, WC

Published Date

  • October 18, 2022

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 66 / 10

Start / End Page

  • e0014022 -

PubMed ID

  • 36165615

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC9578431

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1098-6596

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1128/aac.00140-22


  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States