Development of a multimodal mobile colposcope for real-time cervical cancer detection.
Cervical cancer remains a leading cause of cancer death among women in low-and middle-income countries. Globally, cervical cancer prevention programs are hampered by a lack of resources, infrastructure, and personnel. We describe a multimodal mobile colposcope (MMC) designed to diagnose precancerous cervical lesions at the point-of-care without the need for biopsy. The MMC integrates two complementary imaging systems: 1) a commercially available colposcope and 2) a high speed, high-resolution, fiber-optic microendoscope (HRME). Combining these two image modalities allows, for the first time, the ability to locate suspicious cervical lesions using widefield imaging and then to obtain co-registered high-resolution images across an entire lesion. The MMC overcomes limitations of high-resolution imaging alone; widefield imaging can be used to guide the placement of the high-resolution imaging probe at clinically suspicious regions and co-registered, mosaicked high-resolution images effectively increase the field of view of high-resolution imaging. Representative data collected from patients referred for colposcopy at Barretos Cancer Hospital in Brazil, including 22,800 high resolution images and 9,900 colposcope images, illustrate the ability of the MMC to identify abnormal cervical regions, image suspicious areas with subcellular resolution, and distinguish between high-grade and low-grade dysplasia.
Coole, JB; Brenes, D; Possati-Resende, JC; Antoniazzi, M; Fonseca, BDO; Maker, Y; Kortum, A; Vohra, IS; Schwarz, RA; Carns, J; Borba Souza, KC; Vidigal Santana, IV; Kreitchmann, R; Salcedo, MP; Ramanujam, N; Schmeler, KM; Richards-Kortum, R
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