Redlining has led to increasing rates of nephrolithiasis in minoritized populations: a hypothesis.

Journal Article (Review;Journal Article)

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The persistent rise in kidney stone prevalence in recent decades has prompted much speculation as to the causes. There has been some discussion about the effect of heat on nephrolithiasis. Here, we review recent data and postulate that heat may play a role in stone formation on a large scale and among African-Americans in particular. RECENT FINDINGS: African-Americans are the race/ancestry group with faster rates of increasing incidence and prevalence of kidney stones. We make the observation that urban heat islands in the United States have resulted in part from the effects of redlining, a practice of systematic segregation and racism in housing that led to the development of neighborhoods with substantial disparities in environmental conditions. SUMMARY: In this thought experiment, we propose that the disproportionate rise in the prevalence of nephrolithiasis in minoritized populations correlates with increased temperatures specifically in neighborhoods adversely affected by the practice of redlining. We discuss phenomena in support of this hypothesis and ongoing work to test this theory.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Scotland, KB; Cushing, L; Scales, CD; Eisenman, DP; Goldfarb, DS

Published Date

  • January 1, 2023

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 32 / 1

Start / End Page

  • 103 - 109

PubMed ID

  • 36250470

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1473-6543

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1097/MNH.0000000000000845


  • eng

Conference Location

  • England