Investigating gender-based differential item functioning on the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) using qualitative content analysis.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate potential gender-based differences in interpreting the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ-23) and to explore if there are aspects of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) not captured by the KCCQ-23 that are important to assess in men and/or women with heart failure (HF). METHODS: Patients ≥ 22 years of age with clinician-diagnosed HF and left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 40% were recruited from two academic medical centers to participate in semi-structured concept elicitation and cognitive debriefing interviews. Enrollment was stratified by patient-identified gender (half women/half men). All interviews were conducted over the phone/web and audio recorded. Interviews were transcribed and descriptive qualitative content analysis was used to summarize findings overall and by gender. RESULTS: Twenty-five adults (56% women) diagnosed with HF participated. The average age was 67 years (range: 25-88). Women attributed a wider variety of symptoms to HF than men. Some participants had difficulty differentiating whether their experiences were due to HF, side effects of their medications, or age. We found very little evidence that participants interpreted KCCQ-23 items differently based on gender. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our findings indicate that interpretation of the KCCQ-23 items were similar in men and women. However, some modifications to items may improve clarity of interpretation for a wide range of patients.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Coles, TM; Lucas, N; McFatrich, M; Henke, D; Ridgeway, JL; Behnken, EM; Weinfurt, K; Reeve, BB; Corneli, A; Dunlay, SM; Spertus, JA; Lin, L; Piña, IL; Bocell, FD; Tarver, ME; Dohse, H; Saha, A; Caldwell, B

Published Date

  • March 2023

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 32 / 3

Start / End Page

  • 841 - 852

PubMed ID

  • 36322269

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC9628332

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1573-2649

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1007/s11136-022-03276-y


  • eng

Conference Location

  • Netherlands