Gender inequality in leadership and academic rank in academic reproductive endocrinology programs.

Journal Article (Journal Article)


To identify gender differences in leadership and academic rank within academic reproductive endocrinology (REI) programs with fellowships in the USA.


Official institutional websites of the 2017-2018 American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology (ABOG)-accredited reproductive endocrinology fellowship programs were reviewed, and gender representation at each leadership position and academic rank (Division and Fellowship Director and Full, Associate, and Assistant Professor) was recorded. Univariate comparisons were performed using Chi-square tests, with significance at p < 0.05.


Among 49 ABOG-accredited reproductive endocrinology programs, 263 faculty were identified, 129 (49.0%) male and 134 (51.0%) female. Division directors were 69.3% male and 30.7% female (p = 0.006). Similarly, fellowship directors were 65.3% male and 34.6% female (p = 0.03). Full professors (n = 101) were more frequently male (70.3% vs. 29.7%, p < 0.001). There was no difference in gender among associate professors (n = 60, 51.7% male vs. 48.3% female, p = 0.79), while significantly more assistant professors were female than male (n = 102, 73.6% vs. 26.4%, p < 0.001).


While a majority of residents in obstetrics and gynecology and half of reproductive endocrinology academic faculty are female, women are still underrepresented among leadership positions and full professors in academic reproductive endocrinology programs with fellowship programs.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Selter, JH; Spurlin, EE; Brady, PC

Published Date

  • August 2020

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 37 / 8

Start / End Page

  • 1959 - 1962

PubMed ID

  • 32564240

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC7468001

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1573-7330

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1058-0468

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1007/s10815-020-01866-8


  • eng