Patterns of pediatric venous disease.
BACKGROUND: The spectrum of chronic venous disease (CVD) is well documented in adults; clinical guidelines standardize diagnosis and treatment. There is a paucity of data published commenting on pediatric CVD exclusive of Klippel-Trénaunay syndrome (KTS) and post-thrombotic syndrome. METHODS: This study aimed to define patterns of pediatric venous disease. All venous reflux studies performed on patients <18 years of age between January 2012 and June 2014 were reviewed. Study indication, patient history, clinical examination, and duplex ultrasound results were queried and described. Venous reflux parameters were compared using one-way analysis of variance. RESULTS: Twenty patients were evaluated. All presented through the vascular surgery or multidisciplinary venous clinic at a tertiary academic medical center. Indications for referral included swelling (n = 10), varicose veins (n = 9), and rubor/acrocyanosis (n = 3); two patients carried a diagnosis of KTS. Mean age at study was 13 years (range, 5-17 years). Clinical examination revealed the following: dependent rubor (n = 3); edema (n = 9); and varicose veins or venous abnormality concerning for venous malformation (n = 9). There were no stigmata of chronic inflammation, hyperpigmentation, or ulceration; 90% of patients (n = 18) demonstrated venous reflux by duplex ultrasound interrogation. Mean right great saphenous vein (GSV) diameter was 0.49 cm (range, 0.31-0.66 cm); mean left GSV diameter was 0.55 cm (range, 0.24-0.93 cm). Adjunctive studies were often used (including magnetic resonance venography and lymphoscintigraphy). Despite the presence of venous reflux on imaging, an alternate diagnosis was made in 8 of 18 children (44%), including postural orthostatic hypotension syndrome (n = 2), vascular malformation (n = 2), lymphedema (n = 2), complex regional pain syndrome (n = 1), and acrocyanosis of disuse (n = 1). An additional case of KTS was identified. Three cases referred for varicose veins were diagnosed with venous malformation. Maximum GSV diameter and venous reflux time were compared across patients with isolated CVD, KTS, or an alternate diagnosis (as before). Whereas there was no significant difference in maximum GSV diameter, superficial venous reflux time was significantly increased in the patients with primary CVD and KTS (P = .0394). CONCLUSIONS: The differential diagnosis for pediatric lower extremity edema and varicosities is broad; workup often requires adjunctive studies to secure the appropriate diagnosis. Often there is venous reflux present despite an alternative clinical diagnosis. Superficial venous reflux time may aid in the diagnosis of primary CVD. Whereas the clinical significance of pediatric venous reflux remains unclear, ongoing work to expand on venous parameters in healthy pediatric controls is warranted, as is additional follow-up to assess the natural history of pediatric venous disease.
- Andraska, EA; Horne, DC; Campbell, DN; Eliason, JL; Wakefield, TW; Coleman, DM
- October 2016
Volume / Issue
- 4 / 4
Start / End Page
- 422 - 425
Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
- United States