Variance estimation for the average treatment effects on the treated and on the controls.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

Common causal estimands include the average treatment effect, the average treatment effect of the treated, and the average treatment effect on the controls. Using augmented inverse probability weighting methods, parametric models are judiciously leveraged to yield doubly robust estimators, that is, estimators that are consistent when at least one the parametric models is correctly specified. Three sources of uncertainty are associated when we evaluate these estimators and their variances, that is, when we estimate the treatment and outcome regression models as well as the desired treatment effect. In this article, we propose methods to calculate the variance of the normalized, doubly robust average treatment effect of the treated and average treatment effect on the controls estimators and investigate their finite sample properties. We consider both the asymptotic sandwich variance estimation, the standard bootstrap as well as two wild bootstrap methods. For the asymptotic approximations, we incorporate the aforementioned uncertainties via estimating equations. Moreover, unlike the standard bootstrap procedures, the proposed wild bootstrap methods use perturbations of the influence functions of the estimators through independently distributed random variables. We conduct an extensive simulation study where we vary the heterogeneity of the treatment effect as well as the proportion of participants assigned to the active treatment group. We illustrate the methods using an observational study of critical ill patients on the use of right heart catherization.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Matsouaka, RA; Liu, Y; Zhou, Y

Published Date

  • February 2023

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 32 / 2

Start / End Page

  • 389 - 403

PubMed ID

  • 36476035

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1477-0334

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1177/09622802221142532


  • eng

Conference Location

  • England