Assessing Leadership Behavior in Health Care: Introducing the Local Leadership Scale of the SCORE Survey.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

BACKGROUND: Engaged and accessible leadership is a key component of care excellence. However, the field lacks brief, reliable, and actionable measures of feedback and coaching-related behaviors of local leaders (for example, provides frequent feedback). The current study introduces a five-item Local Leadership (LL) scale by examining its psychometric properties, providing benchmarking across demographic factors and work settings, assessing its association with psychological safety, and testing whether LL predicts reports of restricted activities and absenteeism. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 23,853 questionnaires were distributed across 31 Midwestern US hospitals. The survey included the LL scale, as well as safety culture and well-being scales. Psychometric analyses (Cronbach's α, confirmatory factor analysis [CFA] fit: root square mean error of the approximation [RMSEA], comparative fit index [CFI], Tucker-Lewis index [TLI]), Spearman correlations, t-tests, and analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were used to test the properties of the LL scale and differences by health care worker and work setting characteristics. RESULTS: A total of 16,797 surveys were returned (70.4% response rate). The LL scale exhibited strong psychometric properties (Cronbach's α = 0.94; RMSEA = 0.079; CFI = 0.99; TLI = 0.98). LL scores differed by role, shift, shift length, and years in specialty. Of all roles, leaders (for example, managers) rated leaders most favorably. Nonclinical (vs. clinical) and nonsurgical (vs. surgical) work settings reported higher LL. LL scores correlated positively with psychological safety, absenteeism, and activities restricted due to illness. CONCLUSION: The LL scale exhibits strong psychometric properties, convergent validity with psychological safety, and variation by work setting, work setting type, role, shift, shift length, and specialty. The study indicates that assessing leadership behaviors with the LL scale is useful and offers actionable behaviors for leaders to improve safety culture within teams.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Adair, KC; Levoy, E; Tawfik, DS; Palassof, S; Profit, J; Frankel, A; Leonard, M; Proulx, J; Sexton, JB

Published Date

  • March 2023

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 49 / 3

Start / End Page

  • 166 - 173

PubMed ID

  • 36717344

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1938-131X

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1016/j.jcjq.2022.12.007


  • eng

Conference Location

  • Netherlands