ApoJ/Clusterin concentrations are determinants of cerebrospinal fluid cholesterol efflux capacity and reduced levels are associated with Alzheimer's disease.
Journal Article (Journal Article)
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) shares risk factors with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and dysregulated cholesterol metabolism is a mechanism common to both diseases. Cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) is an ex vivo metric of plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) function and inversely predicts incident CVD independently of other risk factors. Cholesterol pools in the central nervous system (CNS) are largely separate from those in blood, and CNS cholesterol excess may promote neurodegeneration. CEC of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) may be a useful measure of CNS cholesterol trafficking. We hypothesized that subjects with AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) would have reduced CSF CEC compared with Cognitively Normal (CN) and that CSF apolipoproteins apoA-I, apoJ, and apoE might have associations with CSF CEC. METHODS: We retrieved CSF and same-day ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) plasma from 108 subjects (40 AD; 18 MCI; and 50 CN) from the Center for Neurodegenerative Disease Research biobank at the Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania. For CSF CEC assays, we used N9 mouse microglial cells and SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, and the corresponding plasma assay used J774 cells. Cells were labeled with [3H]-cholesterol for 24 h, had ABCA1 expression upregulated for 6 h, were exposed to 33 μl of CSF, and then were incubated for 2.5 h. CEC was quantified as percent [3H]-cholesterol counts in medium of total counts medium+cells, normalized to a pool sample. ApoA-I, ApoJ, ApoE, and cholesterol were also measured in CSF. RESULTS: We found that CSF CEC was significantly lower in MCI compared with controls and was poorly correlated with plasma CEC. CSF levels of ApoJ/Clusterin were also significantly lower in MCI and were significantly associated with CSF CEC. While CSF ApoA-I was also associated with CSF CEC, CSF ApoE had no association with CSF CEC. CSF CEC is significantly and positively associated with CSF Aβ. Taken together, ApoJ/Clusterin may be an important determinant of CSF CEC, which in turn could mitigate risk of MCI and AD risk by promoting cellular efflux of cholesterol or other lipids. In contrast, CSF ApoE does not appear to play a role in determining CSF CEC.
- Ko, Y-A; Billheimer, JT; Lyssenko, NN; Kueider-Paisley, A; Wolk, DA; Arnold, SE; Leung, YY; Shaw, LM; Trojanowski, JQ; Kaddurah-Daouk, RF; Kling, MA; Rader, DJ
- December 26, 2022
Volume / Issue
- 14 / 1
Start / End Page
- 194 -
Pubmed Central ID
Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)