Activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in G2 phase delays mitotic entry through p21CIP1.
Journal Article (Journal Article)
Extracellular signal-regulated kinase activity is essential for mediating cell cycle progression from G(1) phase to S phase (DNA synthesis). In contrast, the role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase during G(2) phase and mitosis (M phase) is largely undefined. Previous studies have suggested that inhibition of basal extracellular signal-regulated kinase activity delays G(2)- and M-phase progression. In the current investigation, we have examined the consequence of activating the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway during G(2) phase on subsequent progression through mitosis. Using synchronized HeLa cells, we show that activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate or epidermal growth factor during G(2) phase causes a rapid cell cycle arrest in G(2) as measured by flow cytometry, mitotic indices and cyclin B1 expression. This G(2)-phase arrest was reversed by pre-treatment with bisindolylmaleimide or U0126, which are selective inhibitors of protein kinase C proteins or the extracellular signal-regulated kinase activators, MEK1/2, respectively. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase-mediated delay in M-phase entry appeared to involve de novo synthesis of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21(CIP1), during G(2) through a p53-independent mechanism. To establish a function for the increased expression of p21(CIP1) and delayed cell cycle progression, we show that extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation in G(2)-phase cells results in an increased number of cells containing chromosome aberrations characteristic of genomic instability. The presence of chromosome aberrations following extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation during G(2)-phase was further augmented in cells lacking p21(CIP1). These findings suggest that p21(CIP1) mediated inhibition of cell cycle progression during G(2)/M phase protects against inappropriate activation of signalling pathways, which may cause excessive chromosome damage and be detrimental to cell survival.
- Dangi, S; Chen, FM; Shapiro, P
- August 2006
Volume / Issue
- 39 / 4
Start / End Page
- 261 - 279
Pubmed Central ID
International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)