Poor Endometrial Proliferation After Clomiphene is Associated With Altered Estrogen Action.
Journal Article (Journal Article)
CONTEXT: Suboptimal endometrial thickening is associated with lower pregnancy rates and occurs in some infertile women treated with clomiphene. OBJECTIVE: To examine cellular and molecular differences in the endometrium of women with suboptimal vs optimal endometrial thickening following clomiphene. METHODS: Translational prospective cohort study from 2018 to 2020 at a university-affiliated clinic. Reproductive age women with unexplained infertility treated with 100 mg of clomiphene on cycle days 3 to 7 who developed optimal (≥8mm; n = 6, controls) or suboptimal (<6mm; n = 7, subjects) endometrial thickness underwent preovulatory blood and endometrial sampling. The main outcome measures were endometrial tissue architecture, abundance and location of specific proteins, RNA expression, and estrogen receptor (ER) α binding. RESULTS: The endometrium of suboptimal subjects compared with optimal controls was characterized by a reduced volume of glandular epithelium (16% vs 24%, P = .01), decreased immunostaining of markers of proliferation (PCNA, ki67) and angiogenesis (PECAM-1), increased immunostaining of pan-leukocyte marker CD45 and ERβ, but decreased ERα immunostaining (all P < .05). RNA-seq identified 398 differentially expressed genes between groups. Pathway analysis of differentially expressed genes indicated reduced proliferation (Z-score = -2.2, P < .01), decreased angiogenesis (Z-score = -2.87, P < .001), increased inflammation (Z-score = +2.2, P < .01), and ERβ activation (Z-score = +1.6, P < .001) in suboptimal subjects. ChIP-seq identified 6 genes bound by ERα that were differentially expressed between groups (P < .01), some of which may play a role in implantation. CONCLUSION: Women with suboptimal endometrial thickness after clomiphene exhibit aberrant ER expression patterns, architectural changes, and altered gene and protein expression suggesting reduced proliferation and angiogenesis in the setting of increased inflammation.
- Hawkins Bressler, L; Fritz, MA; Wu, S-P; Yuan, L; Kafer, S; Wang, T; DeMayo, FJ; Young, SL
- August 18, 2021
Volume / Issue
- 106 / 9
Start / End Page
- 2547 - 2565
Pubmed Central ID
Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
- United States