Induction of neutralizing antibodies and gag-specific cellular immune responses to an R5 primary isolate of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in rhesus macaques.
The ability to generate antibodies that cross-neutralize diverse primary isolates is an important goal for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine development. Most of the candidate HIV-1 vaccines tested in humans and nonhuman primates have failed in this regard. Past efforts have focused almost entirely on the envelope glycoproteins of a small number of T-cell line-adapted strains of the virus as immunogens. Here we assessed the immunogenicity of noninfectious virus-like particles (VLP) consisting of Gag, Pro (protease), and Env from R5 primary isolate HIV-1(Bx08). Immunogens were delivered to rhesus macaques in the form of either purified VLP, recombinant DNA and canarypox (ALVAC) vectors engineered to express VLP, or a combination of these products. Seroconversion to Gag and Pro was detected in all of the immunized animals. Antibodies that could neutralize HIV-1(Bx08) were detected in animals that received (i) coinoculations with DNA(Bx08) and VLP(Bx08), (ii) DNA(Bx08) followed by ALVAC(Bx08) boosting, and (iii) VLP(Bx08) alone. The neutralizing antibodies were highly strain specific despite the fact that they did not appear to be directed to linear epitopes in the V3 loop. Virus-specific cellular immune responses also were generated, as judged by the presence of Gag-specific gamma interferon (IFN-gamma)-producing cells. These cellular immune responses required the inclusion of DNA(Bx08) in the immunization modality, since few or no IFN-gamma-producing cells were detected in animals that received either VLP(Bx08) or ALVAC(Bx08) alone. The results demonstrate the feasibility of generating neutralizing antibodies and cellular immune responses that target an R5 primary HIV-1 isolate by vaccination in primates.
Montefiori, DC; Safrit, JT; Lydy, SL; Barry, AP; Bilska, M; Vo, HT; Klein, M; Tartaglia, J; Robinson, HL; Rovinski, B
Volume / Issue
Start / End Page
Pubmed Central ID
International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)