Leukocytosis and hypoalbuminemia in mixed bipolar states: evidence for immune activation.
OBJECTIVE: Although activation of an immune response during major depressive episodes has been reported, less is known about changes during manic and mixed bipolar episodes. METHOD: Albumin and leukocyte levels were compared between subjects in manic and mixed bipolar episodes. Neutrophil, lymphocyte and monocyte levels were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: Albumin levels were lower in mixed manic subjects as opposed to pure manic subjects and in the combined groups levels were lower in females than in males. Leukocyte levels were higher in mixed manic patients compare with pure manic patients. Both neutrophil and monocyte levels were higher in the mixed manic patients but lymphocyte levels were no different. CONCLUSION: Leukocytosis and hypoalbuminemia during mixed manic states suggest immune activation in mixed mania similar to depression. This finding also tends to support the recognition of mixed mania as a distinct bipolar state.
Cassidy, F; Wilson, WH; Carroll, BJ
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