Modulation of etoposide (VP-16) cytotoxicity by verapamil or cyclosporine in multidrug-resistant human leukemic cell lines and normal bone marrow.
Journal Article (Journal Article)
We studied the effects of two modulators of multidrug resistance (MDR), cyclosporine and verapamil, on the cytotoxicity of etoposide (VP-16) in normal human bone marrow; two human leukemia cell lines, K562 and CEM; their MDR variants, K562/DOX and CEM/VLB; and mixtures of normal marrow and leukemic cells. VP-16 was selectivity toxic to the parental leukemic cells, with IC-50 values of 2 microM for CEM cells, 1.5 microM for K562 cells, and 12 microM for normal marrow CFU-GM. This selectivity was lost in the MDR variant leukemia cells, with IC-50s of 20 microM in K562/DOX and 8 microMs in CEM/VLB. Cyclosporine, 6 microMs, and verapamil, 20 microM, alone were nontoxic to bone marrow CFU-GM, and did not significantly increase the toxicity of VP-16 to normal marrow cells or to the two drug-sensitive leukemic cell lines. However, cyclosporine specifically enhanced the cytotoxicity of VP-16 in the MDR leukemia cells, reducing the IC-50 to the same level as the parental sensitive cells. Verapamil was considerably less effective. In a mixing experiment that included K562/DOX cells and normal bone marrow, cyclosporine increased the toxicity of VP-16 to the resistant leukemic cells by nearly 20-fold. Because the cytotoxic effect of cyclosporine is additive for resistant tumor cells, its combination with VP-16 may be useful in the purging of contaminating tumor cells prior to autologous bone marrow transplantation.
- Chao, NJ; Aihara, M; Blume, KG; Sikic, BI
- December 1990
Volume / Issue
- 18 / 11
Start / End Page
- 1193 - 1198
International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)