Diffuse selection on resistance to deer herbivory in the ivyleaf morning glory, Ipomoea hederacea.
Recent work defines coevolution between plants and herbivores as pairwise when the pattern of selection on resistance traits and the response to selection are both independent of the presence or absence of other herbivores. In addition, for a pairwise response to selection, resistance to a focal herbivore must have the same genetic basis in the presence and absence of other herbivores. None of these conditions were satisfied for the ivyleaf morning glory, Ipomoea hederacea, and its insect, fungal, and mammalian natural enemies with a quantitative genetics field experiment. A significant negative genetic correlation exists between resistance to deer and generalist insect herbivory that would preclude an independent response to selection. In addition, resistance loci under selection differ depending on the composition of the natural enemy community as indicated by genetic correlations between deer resistances in the presence and absence of other natural enemies that differ substantially from 1. Finally, selection on deer resistance depends on the presence or absence of insects; in the presence of insects, greater deer resistance is favored, but in the absence of insects, deer resistance is effectively neutral. These results indicate that the composition of the natural enemy community can alter both the pattern of selection and the likely response to selection of resistance traits.
Stinchcombe, JR; Rausher, MD
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