Quantification and time course of microvascular obstruction by contrast-enhanced echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging following acute myocardial infarction and reperfusion.
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to validate contrast-enhanced echocardiography (CE) in the quantification of microvascular obstruction (MO) against magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the histopathologic standards of radioactive microspheres and thioflavin-S staining. We also determined the time course of MO at days 2 and 9 after infarction and reperfusion. BACKGROUND: Postinfarction MO occurs because prolonged ischemia produces microvessel occlusion at the infarct core, preventing adequate reperfusion. Microvascular obstruction expands up to 48 h after reperfusion; the time course beyond 2 days is unknown. Though used to study MO, CE has not been compared with MRI and thioflavin-S, which yield precise visual maps of MO. METHODS: Ten closed-chest dogs underwent 90-min coronary artery occlusion and reperfusion. Both CE and MRI were performed at 2 and 9 days after reperfusion. The MO regions by both methods were quantified as percent left ventricular (% LV) mass. Radioactive microspheres were injected for blood flow determination. Postmortem, the myocardium was stained with thioflavin-S and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride. RESULTS: Expressed as % total LV, MO by MRI matched in size MO by microspheres using a flow threshold of <40% remote (4.96+/-3.52% vs. 5.32+/-3.98%, p=NS). For matched LV cross sections, MO by CE matched in size MO by microspheres using a flow threshold of <60% remote (13.27+/-4.31% vs. 13.5+/-4.94%, p=NS). Both noninvasive techniques correlated well with microspheres (MRI vs. CE, r=0.87 vs. 0.74; p=NS). Microvascular obstruction by CE corresponded spatially to MRI-hypoenhanced regions and thioflavin-negative regions. For matched LV slices at 9 days after reperfusion, MO measured 12.94+/-4.51% by CE, 7.11+/-3.68% by MRI and 9.18+/-4.32% by thioflavin-S. Compared to thioflavin-S, both noninvasive techniques correlated well (CE vs. MRI, r=0.79 vs. 0.91; p=NS). Microvascular obstruction size was unchanged at 2 and 9 days (CE: 13.23+/-4.11% vs. 12.69+/-4.97%; MRI: 5.53+/-4.94% vs. 4.68+/-3.44%; p=NS for both). CONCLUSIONS: Both CE and MRI can quantify MO. Both correlate well with the histopathologic standards. While MRI can detect regions of MO with blood flow <40% of remote, the threshold for MO by CE is <60% remote. The extent of MO is unchanged at 2 and 9 days after reperfusion.
Wu, KC; Kim, RJ; Bluemke, DA; Rochitte, CE; Zerhouni, EA; Becker, LC; Lima, JA
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