Visualization of discrete microinfarction after percutaneous coronary intervention associated with mild creatine kinase-MB elevation.
BACKGROUND: Mild elevations in creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) are common after successful percutaneous coronary interventions and are associated with future adverse cardiac events. The mechanism for CK-MB release remains unclear. A new contrast-enhanced MRI technique allows direct visualization of myonecrosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fourteen patients without prior infarction underwent cine and contrast-enhanced MRI after successful coronary stenting; 9 patients had procedure-related CK-MB elevation, and 5 did not (negative controls). The mean age of all patients was 61 years, 36% had diabetes, 43% had multivessel coronary artery disease, and all had a normal ejection fraction. Twelve patients (86%) received an intravenous glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor; none underwent atherectomy, and all had final TIMI 3 flow. Of the 9 patients with CK-MB elevation, 5 had a minor side branch occlusion during stenting, 2 had transient ECG changes, and none developed Q-waves. The median CK-MB was 21 ng/mL (range, 12 to 93 ng/mL), which is 2.3x the upper limit of normal. Contrast-enhanced MRI demonstrated discrete regions of hyperenhancement within the target vessel perfusion territory in all 9 patients. Only one developed a new wall motion abnormality. The median estimated mass of myonecrosis was 2.0 g (range, 0.7 to 12.2 g), or 1.5% of left ventricular mass (range, 0.4% to 6.0%). Hyperenhancement persisted in 5 of the 6 who underwent a repeat MRI at 3 to 12 months. No control patient had hyperenhancement. CONCLUSIONS: Contrast-enhanced MRI provides an anatomical correlate to biochemical evidence of procedure-related myocardial injury, despite the lack of ECG changes or wall motion abnormalities. Mild elevation of CK-MB after percutaneous coronary intervention is the result of discrete microinfarction.
Ricciardi, MJ; Wu, E; Davidson, CJ; Choi, KM; Klocke, FJ; Bonow, RO; Judd, RM; Kim, RJ
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