A new monofluorinated phosphatidylcholine forms interdigitated bilayers.
16-Fluoropalmitic acid was synthesized from 16-hydroxypalmitic acid using diethylaminosulfur trifluoride. This monofluorinated fatty acid then was used to make 1-palmitoyl-2-[16-fluoropalmitoyl]-phosphatidylcholine (F-DPPC) as a fluorinated analog of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC). Surprisingly, we found that the phase transition temperature (Tm) of F-DPPC occurs near 50 degrees C, approximately 10 degrees C higher than its nonfluorinated counterpart, DPPC, as judged by both differential scanning calorimetry and infrared spectroscopy. The pretransition observed for DPPC is absent in F-DPPC. A combination of REDOR, rotational-echo double-resonance, and conventional solid-state NMR experiments demonstrates that F-DPPC forms a fully interdigitated bilayer in the gel phase. Electron paramagnetic resonance experiments show that below Tm, the hydrocarbon chains of F-DPPC are more motionally restricted than those of DPPC. X-ray scattering experiments confirm that the thickness and packing of gel phase F-DPPC is similar to that of heptanetriol-induced interdigitated DPPC. F-DPPC is the first phosphoglyceride containing sn-1 and sn-2 ester-linked fatty acyl chains of equal length that spontaneously forms interdigitated bilayers in the gel state in the absence of inducing agents such as alcohols.
Hirsh, DJ; Lazaro, N; Wright, LR; Boggs, JM; McIntosh, TJ; Schaefer, J; Blazyk, J
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