Co-ordinated electron microscopy and X-ray studies of glycerinated insect flight muscle. II. Electron microscopy and image reconstruction of muscle fibres fixed in rigor, in ATP and in AMPPNP.
This paper presents electron microscopy, supported by optical diffraction and filtering of images from 100 nm and 25 nm sections, to complement the companion report of X-ray diffraction monitoring (immediately preceding this article) performed on the same insect flight muscle specimens during fixation, dehydration and embedding. Glycerinated Lethocerus fibre bundles initially fixed in rigor, in ATP relaxing buffer, or in 1 mM AMPPNP at 2 degrees C, gave thin-section images from each state whose optical transforms match the distinctive X-ray diffraction patterns from the embedded samples. For rigor and relaxed states, this extends and confirms a long-known correlation between X-ray patterns and EM image regularities. For the AMPPNP state, such correlation is here fully developed for the first time, and involves a new and distinctive EM image pattern of the crossbridge array, clearly different from a previously reported structure in AMPPNP-treated muscles that appears identical to fixed relaxed muscle. We found this latter artifact of 'AMPPNP-relaxed structure' in many fibres from our best AMPPNP specimen, but could identify other fibres which retained the distinctive AMPPNP structure, known to be dominant in this specimen from the X-ray pattern. The true AMPPNP structure shows features of both the ATP-relaxed and rigor crossbridge patterns, not as separate patches, but hybridized uniformly along each filament and throughout each affected sarcomere and fibre. It presents a 14.5 nm repeat of striping and lateral projections along thick filaments, together with variously angled crossbridge attachments to actin that form a 38.7 nm repeat of diffuse chevrons or deltoids replacing the more clearly delinated rigor double chevrons. The associated optical transform has the typical AMPPNP features, that is, it has in common with rigor a strong 19.3 nm layer line and strong second to fourth row line sampling on the 38.7 nm layer line, it has in common with relaxed patterns a strong 14.5 nm meridional and layer line, but it uniquely shows no intensity at the first row line on the 38.7 nm layer line (the 10.3 X-ray reflection), where rigor and relaxed transforms always show high intensity. The processing artifacts which intensify the 10.3 reflection, and produce the weak 19.3 nm layer line (a gain of intensity for ATP but a loss for the AMPPNP state), throughout ATP specimens and in those analogue-treated fibres showing AMPPNP-relaxed structure, might indicate trapping and accumulation of minority populations within the native equilibrium distribution of crossbridge conformations in each nucleotide state.
Reedy, MC; Reedy, MK; Goody, RS
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