Mechanism for binding site diversity on ankyrin. Comparison of binding sites on ankyrin for neurofascin and the Cl-/HCO3- anion exchanger.
Ankyrins are a family of spectrin-binding proteins that associate with at least seven distinct membrane proteins, including ion transporters and cell adhesion molecules. The membrane-binding domain of ankyrin is comprised of a tandem array of 24 ANK repeats organized into four 6-repeat folding domains. Tandem arrays of ANK repeats have been proposed to mediate protein interactions in a variety of proteins including factors involved in the regulation of transcription and the cell cycle. This report provides several new insights into the versatility of ANK repeats of ankyrin in protein recognition, using neurofascin and the Cl-/HCO3- anion exchanger as model ligands and ankyrinR as the prototypic ankyrin. Different combinations of ANK repeat domains from this ankyrin form two distinct, high affinity binding sites for neurofascin. One site requires both repeat domains 3 and 4. The other site involves both repeat domains 2 and 3, although domain 2 has significant activity alone. The sites appear to be independent with Kd values of 3 and 14 nM, respectively. Both the Cl-/HCO3- anion exchanger and neurofascin can interact simultaneously with repeat domains 3 and 4, because neurofascin is unable to displace binding of the anion exchanger cytoplasmic domain to domains 3 and 4, despite having a 3-5-fold higher affinity. These results demonstrate two levels of diversity in the binding sites on ankyrin: one resulting from different combinations of ANK repeat domains and another from different determinants within the same combination of repeat domains. One consequence of this diversity is that ankyrin can accommodate two neurofascin molecules as well as the anion exchanger through interactions mediated by ANK repeats. The ability of ankyrin to simultaneously associate with multiple types of membrane proteins is an unanticipated finding with implications for the assembly of integral membrane proteins into specialized regions of the plasma membrane.
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