Ankyrin and synapsin: spectrin-binding proteins associated with brain membranes.
Brain membranes contain an actin-binding protein closely related in structure and function to erythrocyte spectrin. The proteins that attach brain spectrin to membranes are not established, but, by analogy with the erythrocyte membrane, may include ankyrin and protein 4.1. In support of this idea, proteins closely related to ankyrin and 4.1 have been purified from brain and have been demonstrated to associate with brain spectrin. Brain ankyrin binds with high affinity to the spectrin beta subunit at the midregion of spectrin tetramers. Brain ankyrin also has binding sites for the cytoplasmic domain of the erythrocyte anion channel (band 3), as well as for tubulin. Ankyrins from brain and erythrocytes have a similar domain structure with protease-resistant domains of Mr = 72,000 that contain spectrin-binding activity, and domains of Mr = 95,000 (brain ankyrin) or 90,000 (erythrocyte ankyrin) that contain binding sites for both tubulin and the anion channel. Brain ankyrin is present at about 100 pmol/mg membrane protein, or about twice the number of copies of spectrum beta chains. Brain ankyrin thus is present in sufficient amounts to attach spectrin to membranes, and it has the potential to attach microtubules to membranes as well as to interconnect microtubules with spectrin-associated actin filaments. Another spectrin-binding protein has been purified from brain membranes, and this protein cross-reacts with erythrocyte 4.1. Brain 4.1 is identical to the membrane protein synapsin, which is one of the brain's major substrates for cAMP-dependent and Ca/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases with equivalent physical properties, immunological cross-reaction, and peptide maps. Synapsin (4.1) is present at about 60 pmol/mg membrane protein, and thus is a logical candidate to regulate certain protein linkages involving spectrin.
Bennett, V; Baines, AJ; Davis, JQ
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