Long-term outcome after marrow transplantation for severe aplastic anemia.
We reviewed the records and reevaluated 212 patients with aplastic anemia transplanted at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (FHCRC) between 1970 and 1993 who survived >/=2 years and who have been followed for up to 26 years. Parameters analyzed included hematopoietic function, chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), skin disease, cataracts, lung disease, skeletal problems, posttransplant malignancy, depression, pregnancy/fatherhood, and the return to work or school, as well as patient self-assessment of physical and psychosocial health, social interactions, memory and concentration, and overall severity of symptoms. Survival probabilities at 20 years were 89% for patients without (n = 125) and 69% for patients with chronic GVHD (n = 86) (the status was uncertain in 1 surviving patient). All patients had normal hematopoietic parameters. Skin problems occurred in 14%, cataracts in 12%, lung disease in 24%, and bone and joint problems in 18% of patients. Eleven patients (12%) developed a solid tumor malignancy and 19% of patients experienced depression. Chronic GVHD was the dominant risk factor for late complications. Seventeen patients died at 2.5 to 20.4 years posttransplant; 13 of these had chronic GVHD and related complications. At 2 years, 83% of patients had returned to school or work; the proportion increased to 90% by 20 years. At least half of the patients preserved or regained the ability to become pregnant or father children. Patients rated their quality of life as excellent and symptoms as minimal or mild. In conclusion, marrow transplantation in patients with aplastic anemia established long-term normal hematopoiesis. No new hematologic disorders occurred. The major cause of morbidity and mortality was chronic GVHD. However, the majority of patients who survived beyond 2 years returned to a fully functional life.
Deeg, HJ; Leisenring, W; Storb, R; Nims, J; Flowers, ME; Witherspoon, RP; Sanders, J; Sullivan, KM
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