Cyclosporine or cyclosporine plus methylprednisolone for prophylaxis of graft-versus-host disease: a prospective, randomized trial.
Patients with a lymphohematopoietic malignancy considered to be at high risk for posttransplant relapse were enrolled in a study to compare the use of cyclosporine (CSP) as a single agent with a combination of methylprednisolone (MP) and CSP for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis after marrow transplantation from an HLA-identical sibling donor. Sixty patients were randomized to receive CSP only and 62 were randomized to receive CSP plus MP. Daily CSP was started on day -1 (5 mg/kg/d intravenously) and administered at gradually reduced doses until day 180. MP was started on day 7 at 0.5 mg/kg/d, increased to 1.0 mg/kg/d on day 15, started on a taper schedule on day 29, and discontinued on day 72. All 104 evaluable patients (surviving > or =28 days) had sustained engraftment. The incidence rates of grades II-IV acute GVHD were 73% and 60% for patients receiving CSP and CSP plus MP, respectively (P = .01). No difference was seen for grades III-IV GVHD. However, chronic GVHD occurred somewhat more frequently in patients receiving CSP plus MP (44%) than in patients receiving only CSP (21%; P = .02). The incidence of de novo chronic GVHD was marginally higher in patients receiving CSP plus MP (P = .08). No significant differences in the risk of infections were observed. There was a suggestion that the risk of relapse was lower in patients receiving CSP plus MP (P = .10) and, although the overall survival in the two groups was not different (P = .44), there was a slight advantage in favor of CSP plus MP-treated patients for relapse-free survival (P = .07). These results suggest that prophylactic MP, when combined with CSP, has only limited efficacy in acute GVHD prevention and may increase the probability of chronic GVHD.
Deeg, HJ; Lin, D; Leisenring, W; Boeckh, M; Anasetti, C; Appelbaum, FR; Chauncey, TR; Doney, K; Flowers, M; Martin, P; Nash, R; Schoch, G; Sullivan, KM; Witherspoon, RP; Storb, R
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