A toxicity study of trimetrexate used in combination with cyclosporine as acute graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis in HLA-mismatched, related donor bone marrow transplants.
This study evaluated the acute toxicity of trimetrexate (TMTX) used in combination with cyclosporine (CsA) for prevention of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in patients undergoing allogeneic marrow transplantation from HLA-mismatched, related donors. TMTX has a mechanism of action similar to that of methotrexate (MTX); however, unlike MTX, TMTX is not primarily dependent on renal excretion. Patients were conditioned for transplant with cyclophosphamide, anti-thymocyte globulin, and total body irradiation. TMTX, 10 mg/m2 i.v., was administered on days 1, 3, 6, 11, 18, 25, 32, and 39 after transplant. CsA, 1.5 mg/kg i.v., was administered every 12 hr beginning on day-1. Eleven patients with hematologic malignancies or aplastic anemia (median age = 34 yr) received TMTX. Toxicity assessed included nausea, vomiting, fever, rash, time to myeloid and platelet engraftment, mucositis, and hepatic and renal dysfunction. Toxicity of TMTX was not different from that observed with MTX in a similar patient population. One patient died on day 16 before engraftment. The other 10 patients all engrafted and all developed acute GVHD at a median time of 11 days after transplant. The major manifestation of acute GVHD was in the skin, and all but one patient responded to primary therapy with corticosteroids. Seven patients have survived a median of 447 days after transplant. No significant toxicity from TMTX was observed. Further trials are warranted to define the role of TMTX in marrow transplantation.
Doney, KC; Storb, R; Beach, K; Anasetti, C; Deeg, HJ; Hansen, JA; Martin, PJ; Nash, RA; Schubert, MM; Sullivan, KM
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