The influence of left ventricular hypertrophy on survival in patients with coronary artery disease: do race and gender matter?
OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine the overall prognostic importance of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) among patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), as well as to determine whether this risk varies as a function of race or gender. BACKGROUND: Left ventricular hypertrophy is more prevalent among blacks and women than their counterparts. Blacks and women also have higher mortality with coronary disease. METHODS: We studied records of 2,461 patients (19% black, 42% women) diagnosed with CAD at cardiac catheterization between 1990 and 1998 from a single academic center. Left ventricular hypertrophy was defined using standard echocardiographic measures. Cox proportional hazards models were used for adjusted survival analyses. Mean patient follow-up was three years. RESULTS: Patients with LVH were older (68 vs. 65 years, p < 0.01), more often women (54% vs. 36%, p < 0.01), and black (25% vs. 16%, p < 0.01), and had higher unadjusted three-year mortality rates than patients without LVH (42% vs. 34%, p < 0.01). Left ventricular hypertrophy remained an independent predictor of mortality after adjusting for other clinical risk factors (hazard ratio 1.56, 95% confidence interval 1.35 to 1.80) with prognostic importance equivalent to that of left ventricular ejection fraction. Although the relative risk of LVH did not vary by race or gender, the attributable risk of LVH was greater in blacks and women. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should consider the prognostic importance of LVH when assessing risk in patients with CAD. Because LVH is more common among black and women patients with CAD, it partially accounts for racial and gender differences in survival.
East, MA; Jollis, JG; Nelson, CL; Marks, D; Peterson, ED
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