Cellular trafficking of G protein-coupled receptor/beta-arrestin endocytic complexes.
beta-Arrestins are multifunctional proteins identified on the basis of their ability to bind and uncouple G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) from heterotrimeric G proteins. In addition, beta-arrestins play a central role in mediating GPCR endocytosis, a key regulatory step in receptor resensitization. In this study, we visualize the intracellular trafficking of beta-arrestin2 in response to activation of several distinct GPCRs including the beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2AR), angiotensin II type 1A receptor (AT1AR), dopamine D1A receptor (D1AR), endothelin type A receptor (ETAR), and neurotensin receptor (NTR). Our results reveal that in response to beta2AR activation, beta-arrestin2 translocation to the plasma membrane shares the same pharmacological profile as described for receptor activation and sequestration, consistent with a role for beta-arrestin as the agonist-driven switch initiating receptor endocytosis. Whereas redistributed beta-arrestins are confined to the periphery of cells and do not traffic along with activated beta2AR, D1AR, and ETAR in endocytic vesicles, activation of AT1AR and NTR triggers a clear time-dependent redistribution of beta-arrestins to intracellular vesicular compartments where they colocalize with internalized receptors. Activation of a chimeric AT1AR with the beta2AR carboxyl-terminal tail results in a beta-arrestin membrane localization pattern similar to that observed in response to beta2AR activation. In contrast, the corresponding chimeric beta2AR with the AT1AR carboxyl-terminal tail gains the ability to translocate beta-arrestin to intracellular vesicles. These results demonstrate that the cellular trafficking of beta-arrestin proteins is differentially regulated by the activation of distinct GPCRs. Furthermore, they suggest that the carboxyl-tail of the receptors might be involved in determining the stability of receptor/betaarrestin complexes and cellular distribution of beta-arrestins.
Zhang, J; Barak, LS; Anborgh, PH; Laporte, SA; Caron, MG; Ferguson, SS
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