A mutation of the beta 2-adrenergic receptor impairs agonist activation of adenylyl cyclase without affecting high affinity agonist binding. Distinct molecular determinants of the receptor are involved in physical coupling to and functional activation of Gs.
Activation of guanyl nucleotide regulatory proteins (G proteins) by hormones and neurotransmitters appears to require the formation of high affinity agonist-receptor-G protein ternary complexes. In the case of the beta 2-adrenergic receptor, multiple regions of the molecule have been implicated in coupling to the stimulatory G protein Gs. This finding raises the possibility that discrete regions of the receptor mediate ternary complex formation, whereas different loci may be involved in other aspects of G protein activation. To date, however, mutagenesis studies with the beta 2-adrenergic receptor have not clarified this question since mutant receptors with impaired abilities to activate Gs have generally possessed a diminished capacity to form the ternary complex as assessed in binding assays. We have expressed in a mammalian cell line a mutant beta 2-adrenergic receptor comprising a seven-amino acid deletion in the carboxyl-terminal region of its third cytoplasmic loop (D267-273), a region proposed to be critically involved in coupling to Gs. When tested with beta-adrenergic agonists, the maximal adenylyl cyclase response mediated by this mutant receptor was less than one-half of that seen with the wild-type receptor. Nevertheless, D267-273 exhibited high affinity agonist binding identical to that of the wild-type receptor. In addition, agonist-induced sequestration of the receptor, a property not mediated by Gs, was also normal. These findings indicate that the formation of high affinity agonist-receptor-Gs complexes is not sufficient to fully activate Gs. Instead, an additional stimulatory signal appears to be required from the receptor. Our data thereby suggest that the molecular determinants of the beta 2-adrenergic receptor involved in formation of the ternary complex are not identical to those that transmit the agonist-induced stimulatory signal to Gs.
Hausdorff, WP; Hnatowich, M; O'Dowd, BF; Caron, MG; Lefkowitz, RJ
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