Two distinct pathways for cAMP-mediated down-regulation of the beta 2-adrenergic receptor. Phosphorylation of the receptor and regulation of its mRNA level.
We have studied cyclic AMP-mediated regulation of the beta 2-adrenergic receptor (beta 2AR). The effects of cAMP were assessed in Chinese hamster fibroblast (CHW) cells expressing either the wild type human beta 2AR receptor (CH-beta 2) or mutated forms of the receptor lacking the consensus sequences for phosphorylation by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Treatment of the CH-beta 2 cells with the cAMP analogue dibutyryl cAMP (Bt2cAMP) induces a time-dependent "down-regulation" of the number of beta 2AR. This down-regulation of the receptors is accompanied by a decline in the steady state level of beta 2AR mRNA. Moreover, the treatment with Bt2cAMP induces an increase in the phosphorylation level of the membrane-associated beta 2AR. Both the reduction in beta 2AR mRNA and the enhanced phosphorylation of the receptor are rapid and precede the loss of receptor. The down-regulation of beta 2AR induced by Bt2cAMP is concentration-dependent and mimicked by the other biologically active cyclic nucleotide analogue, 8-Br-cAMP, by forskolin, and by the phosphodiesterase inhibitor, isobutylmethylxanthine. In the CHW cell lines expressing receptors lacking the putative protein kinase A phosphorylation sites, the Bt2cAMP-induced phosphorylation of beta 2AR is completely abolished. In these cells the down-regulation of beta 2AR receptor number produced by cAMP is significantly slowed, whereas the reduction in beta 2AR mRNA level is equivalent to that observed in CH-beta 2 cells. These data indicate that there are at least two pathways by which cAMP may decrease the number of beta 2ARs in cells: one involves phosphorylation of the receptor by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase and the other leads to a reduction in steady state beta 2AR mRNA levels.
Bouvier, M; Collins, S; O'Dowd, BF; Campbell, PT; de Blasi, A; Kobilka, BK; MacGregor, C; Irons, GP; Caron, MG; Lefkowitz, RJ
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