Mechanisms of hormone receptor-effector coupling: the beta-adrenergic receptor and adenylate cyclase.
The beta-adrenergic receptors that are coupled to adenylate cyclase have provided a model system for studying the mechanisms by which a plasma membrane receptor is coupled to a well-defined biochemical effector. The beta 2-adrenergic receptors from frog erythrocyte membranes have been purified to homogeneity and the ligand-binding subunit has been identified as a glycoprotein with an approximate molecular weight of 58,000. This subunit has also been identified with the use of newly developed photoaffinity reagents. Under the influence of agonist hormones (H), the receptors (R) form transient complexes with another component of this system, termed the nucleotide regulatory protein (N). Formation of this ternary complex, HRN, leads to the dissociation of GDP from N and the interaction of stimulatory GTP with N. N charged with GTP appears to activate the catalytic moiety of the adenylate cyclase enzyme. Although some striking analogies have been found for the mechanisms by which inhibitory receptors interact with adenylate cyclase, much less is known about the molecular properties of the components involved and the ways in which they interact to dampen adenylate cyclase activity in the plasma membrane.
Lefkowitz, RJ; Caron, MG; Michel, T; Stadel, JM
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