Regulation of responsiveness at D2 dopamine receptors by receptor desensitization and adenylyl cyclase sensitization.
The regulation of cellular responsiveness to dopamine via the D2 dopamine receptor was investigated in mouse fibroblast Ltk-cells stably expressing the rat D2-short receptor [Nature (Lond.) 336:783-787 (1988)]. Dopamine inhibited forskolin-stimulated cAMP levels in these cells (half-maximal inhibition at 3.9 +/- 1.1 nM), and the inhibition by dopamine was blocked by D2 antagonists and was pertussis toxin sensitive. Treatment of these cells with the D2 agonist quinpirole (1 microM) resulted in desensitization of dopaminergic inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation, with a approximately 4-fold decrease in the potency of dopamine after 1 hr of treatment. No significant changes in total cellular D2 receptor concentrations were observed, even after prolonged agonist treatment. At longer time points, basal and forskolin-stimulated cellular cAMP levels were increased in treated cells. The effect of D2 agonist treatment on membrane adenylyl cyclase (EC 184.108.40.206) activity was examined. Basal and forskolin- and prostaglandin E1-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activities were increased by quinpirole treatment for 24 hr. This sensitization of adenylyl cyclase was blocked by the presence of a D2 antagonist. Pertussis toxin pretreatment blocked the sensitization of adenylyl cyclase by quinpirole, although pertussis toxin also caused increased adenylyl cyclase activity on its own. Sensitization was not dependent upon dopaminergic inhibition of intracellular cAMP levels, because quinpirole treatment in the presence of membrane-permeable cAMP analogs or 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (an inhibitor of cAMP phosphodiesterase) resulted in greater sensitization of adenylyl cyclase activity than quinpirole treatment alone. These results suggest that, in this model system, responsiveness to dopamine via the D2 receptor is regulated by both desensitization of receptor function and sensitization of the stimulatory adenylyl cyclase pathway.
Bates, MD; Senogles, SE; Bunzow, JR; Liggett, SB; Civelli, O; Caron, MG
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