Solubilization and characterization of the beta-adrenergic receptor binding sites of frog erythrocytes.
Specific beta-adrenergic receptors present in membrane preparations of frog erythrocytes were identified by binding of (-)-[3H]dihydroalprenolol, a potent competitive beta-adrenergic antagonist. The (-)-[3H]dihydroalprenolol binding sites could be solubilized by treatment of a purified erythrocyte membrane fraction with the plant glycoside digitonin but not by treatment with a wide variety of other detergents. The binding sites appeared to be soluble by several independent experimental criteria including (a) failure to sediment of 105,000 X g for 2 hours; (b) passage through 0.22-mu Millipore filters; (c) chromatography on Sepharose 6B gels; and (d) electron microscopy. The soluble receptor sites retained all of the essential characteristics of the membrane-bound sites, namely rapid and reversible binding of beta-adrenergic agonists and antagonists; strict stereospecificity toward both beta-adrenergic agonists and antagonists; appropriate structure-activity relationships; saturability of the sites at low concentrations of ligand; no affinity for alpha-adrenergic drugs, nonphysiologically active catechol compounds, and catecholamine metabolites. Based on gel chromatography in the presence of detergent, the molecular weight of the soluble receptor is estimated to be no greater than 130,000 to 150,000. Equilibrium binding studies indicated a KD for the soluble receptor of 2 nM. Hill coefficients (nH) of 0.77 and curved Scatchard plots suggested the presence of negatively cooperative interactions among the solubilized receptors in agreement with previous findings with the membrane-bound sites. Kinetic studies indicated an association rate constant K1 = 3.8 X 10(6) M-1 min-1 and a reverse rate constant k2 = 2.3 X 10(-3) min-1 at 4 degrees. The kinetically derived KD (k2/k1) of 0.6 nM is in reasonable agreement with that determined by equilibrium studies. The soluble receptors were labile at temperature greater than 4 degrees but could be stabilized with high concentrations of EDTA. Guanidine hydrochloride and urea produced concentration-dependent losses of binding activity which were partially reversible upon dialysis. Trypsin and phospholipase A both degraded the soluble receptors but a variety of other proteases and phospholipases as well as DNase and RNase were without effect. Experiments with group-specific reagents indicated that free lysine, tryptophan, serine, and sulfhydryl groups may be important for receptor binding. These studies suggest that the receptor is probably a protein which requires lipids for functional integrity. Data obtained with the solubilized binding sites are consistent with the contention that these sites represent the physiologically relevant beta-adrenergic receptors which have been extracted from the membranes with full retention of their properties.
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