Long-term effect on the equine eye of an intravitreal device used for sustained release of cyclosporine A.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the long-term toxicity of an intravitreal device releasing continuous cyclosporinee A (CsA) in normal eyes of horses by evaluating clinical signs, electroretinography, and histopathology. Animals Studied Ten adult horses with normal ophthalmic examinations were used in this study Procedure(s) Four horses had one eye implanted with a CsA device, and six horses had the right eye implanted with a CsA-containing device (10 eyes with CsA in total) and the left eye (six eyes in total) with the device without drug (control). The implants were placed in the vitreous of the eyes through a sclerotomy 1 cm posterior to the limbus in the dorso-temporal quadrant of the eye. Scotopic electroretinograms were performed prior to implantation and at 1 week, and at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months postimplantation. Two of the unilaterally implanted horses were euthanized at 1 weeks postimplantation, and two at 6 weeks postimplantation. Two of the bilaterally implanted horses were euthanized at 6 months, two at 9 months, and two at 12 months postimplantation. At euthanasia, the eyes were removed, aqueous and vitreous humor aspirated, and tissues fixed in 10% buffered formalin and processed for histopathology. CsA concentrations were measured by high pressure liquid chromatography in the aqueous and vitreous humors, and in peripheral blood. RESULTS: The devices were tolerated well in 14 of 16 eyes. There was minimal postoperative inflammation in most eyes, with a normal appearance within 7 days. In two eyes implanted with the CsA device, severe inflammation resulted in phthisis bulbi by 28 days. One of these eyes exhibited suspected bacterial endophthalmitis, and one had a sterile endophthalmitis and cataract presumably from trauma to the lens during implantation. In the other 14 eyes, no change was observed in the scotopic electroretinograms (ERG) from preoperative results, and no significant differences between the right (CsA) and left (control device) eyes were observed. CsA levels in the aqueous and vitreous humor, and peripheral blood were below the detection limit of the HPLC. Histologic findings revealed only a mild lymphoplasmacytic cellular infiltrate in the ciliary body and pars plana near the implantation site. CONCLUSIONS: The CsA devices were well tolerated with no long-term complications from the implants themselves. However, complications may occur from inadvertent implantation trauma or contamination during surgery. The long-term safety of the device may make it useful for delivery of CsA in the control of equine recurrent uveitis.
Gilger, BC; Malok, E; Stewart, T; Ashton, P; Smith, T; Jaffe, GJ; Allen, JB
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