Retinal phototoxicity from the operating microscope. The role of inspired oxygen.
The effect of the inspired oxygen concentration (FIO2) on the production of retinal phototoxicity by the operating microscope was studied in phakic rhesus monkeys. One eye of each monkey was exposed to light under conditions of 99% FIO2, and the other eye was exposed under 21% oxygen (O2). Three of four locations on each retina were exposed to light for durations varying from 1 1/2 to 20 minutes per exposure. Fundus photographs and fluorescein angiograms were obtained 24 to 72 hours after exposure. Animals were euthanatized for analysis of retinal histopathology at intervals from 2 weeks to 8 months after light exposure. Retinal phototoxic lesions were produced after an average of 5 minutes of light exposure under both 21 and 99% O2. O2 potentiated the light damage both clinically and histologically. Under both conditions, lesion size was directly related to the duration of light exposure (P less than 0.005). Lesions near threshold produced with 99% FIO2 were 1.6 to 6.9 (mean, 2.9) times larger than the corresponding lesions formed with 21% FIO2. Histologic damage was likewise more severe in lesions produced under high O2 conditions. Retinal repair occurred in lesions produced under high and low O2 conditions. Photoreceptor regeneration was nearly complete by 18 weeks, whereas retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) recovery lagged up to 1 1/2 months. The results of this study have important implications for clinical practice: the operating microscope can produce retinal phototoxicity rapidly, and O2 administered during ophthalmic procedures may potentiate the damage if appropriate precautions are not taken.
Jaffe, GJ; Irvine, AR; Wood, IS; Severinghaus, JW; Pino, GR; Haugen, C
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