L-glutamine supplementation of a high fat diet reduces body weight and attenuates hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in C57BL/6J mice.
C57BL/6J (B/6J) mice are genetically predisposed to become overweight and develop hyperglycemia if raised on a high fat diet. The purpose of the present study was to explore the effect of dietary supplementation of L-glutamine (Gln), an inhibitor of fatty acid oxidation, on the development of hyperglycemia and excessive weight gain. Groups of 10 age- and weight-matched male B/6J mice were raised on one of four diets: 1) a low fat, low sucrose (LL), studied separately, 2) a high fat, low sucrose (HL) diet alone, 3) high fat, low sucrose supplemented with L-glutamine (HL+Gln) and 4) high fat, low sucrose supplemented with L-alanine (HL+Ala). Energy intake, body weight, plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were monitored over time. We found no difference in energy intake per unit body weight between any groups after the first 2 wk of feeding. However, the mean +/- SEM for body weight (27.1 +/- 0.6 g) of the LL group measured at 16 wk was lower (P < 0.05) than that of the HL group at 37.9 +/- 1.9 g. Also, after 5.5 mo, the mean +/- SEM for plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in the LL group of mice were 6.9 +/- 0.4 mmol/l and 146 +/- 30 pmol/l, which were lower (P < 0.05) than those in the HL group at 10.1 +/- 0.9 mmol/l and 438 +/- 84 pmol/l, respectively. Although both amino acids caused a 10% reduction (P < 0.05) in body weight compared with HL feeding at wk 16, only Gln supplementation resulted in persistent reductions in both plasma glucose and insulin concentrations over 5.5 mo. In another experiment, when Gln was added to the high fat (HL) diet of heavy hyperglycemic animals for 2 mo, body weight gain, hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia were attenuated. In conclusion, supplementing glutamine to a high fat diet reduces body weight and attenuated hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in B/6J mice.
Opara, EC; Petro, A; Tevrizian, A; Feinglos, MN; Surwit, RS
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