Neem oil inhibits two-cell embryo development and trophectoderm attachment and proliferation in vitro.
PURPOSE: The in vitro effect of neem oil was studied on the development of mouse two-cell embryos and trophectodermal cell attachment and proliferation. METHOD: Female mice were primed with gonadotropins for superovulation and caged with male mice. Early embryos, at the two-cell and the blastocyst stages, were recovered at 40 and 88 hr post-hCG from the oviducts and the uteri, respectively. In the first experiment, two-cell embryos were exposed to culture medium containing different concentrations of neem oil for 1, 12, and 24 hr and then grown in neem oil-free culture medium and assessed for the formation of total and hatching blastocysts at 96 hr. In the second experiment, partially hatching blastocysts were cocultured with human endometrial stromal cell monolayers in culture medium containing different concentrations of neem oil and assessed for the attachment and proliferation of trophectodermal cells at 96 hr. RESULTS: Exposure of two-cell embryos to neem oil concentrations of 0.050-0.500% for 1 hr, 0.010-0.250% for 12 hr, and 0.005-0.100% for 24 hr caused significant inhibition of the formation of total and hatching blastocysts, in a dose-dependent manner. Neem oil at 0.050-0.100% concentrations inhibited, in a dose-dependent manner, the in vitro attachment and proliferation of trophectodermal cells of partially hatching blastocysts cocultured with human endometrial stromal cells monolayers. CONCLUSION: Neem oil inhibits the development of two-cell embryos and attachment and proliferation of the trophectodermal cells of partially hatching blastocysts in vitro. The study encourages the use of this herbal product as a postcoital contraceptive that warrants further research.
Juneja, SC; Pfeifer, T; Williams, RS; Chegini, N
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