Influence of food deprivation on intestinal cholecystokinin and somatostatin.
Dietary stimulation has trophic effects on the gastrointestinal tract, whereas prolonged fasting causes mucosal atrophy. Whether gastrointestinal endocrine cells within the mucosa are similarly affected is unknown. The present study was designed to determine the effects of food deprivation and refeeding on cholecystokinin (CCK) and somatostatin in the rat small intestine. RNA was prepared from the duodenum, and peptide and messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of CCK, somatostatin, and beta-actin were analyzed by hybridization with complementary DNA probes. During food deprivation for up to 5 days, plasma CCK levels decreased rapidly, followed by a decline in duodenal CCK mRNA levels and a more gradual decrease in mucosal CCK peptide concentrations. After 3 days of fasting, one group of rats was refed. After only 1 day of refeeding, all parameters (levels of plasma CCK, duodenal CCK mRNA, and duodenal CCK peptide) were restored to control levels. The reduction in CCK mRNA levels seen with fasting was specific, because food deprivation and refeeding produced no changes in either duodenal somatostatin concentrations or mRNA levels of somatostatin and beta-actin. These findings provide initial evidence that food deprivation inhibits duodenal CCK mRNA levels but does not affect duodenal somatostatin.
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