Elevated plasma cholecystokinin and appetitive ratings after consumption of a liquid meal in humans.
OBJECTIVE: This study had two objectives. The first was to evaluate the possibility that, in a previous study, a soup preload augmented the reduction of food intake in a test meal induced by an exogenous infusion of cholecystokinin (CCK) because the soup also endogenously released CCK. The second was to compare CCK release by soup between men and women to determine whether the increased satiating effectiveness of soup in women as opposed to men could have been partly attributable to differences in CCK release. METHODS: By using a bioassay that measures all of its known isoforms, we determined plasma CCK levels at baseline and at several times postprandially in eight healthy, non-obese men and women (four of each sex). Each subject ingested 800 g of tomato soup, which was followed 30 min later by 300 g of a yogurt shake. Appetitive ratings were also collected and related to CCK levels. RESULTS: Ingestion of tomato soup significantly increased plasma CCK levels by 3.81 pmol/L (+/- 1.21 standard error, P = 0.016) over baseline within 30 min in all subjects combined. When CCK concentrations at 5 min after soup and 5 min after yogurt were averaged, the women's mean averaged concentration was 5.58 pmol/L (+/- 1.994, t = 2.80, P = 0.0073) higher than the men's. The elevated levels persisted but did not rise further upon consumption of the yogurt shake. Hunger ratings declined and fullness ratings increased after eating, although patterns of ratings did not match exactly patterns of CCK release. CONCLUSIONS: A large quantity of tomato soup stimulates significant CCK release; therefore, some of the satiating effects of soup preloads could have been mediated by an elevation in endogenous CCK.
Nolan, LJ; Guss, JL; Liddle, RA; Pi-Sunyer, FX; Kissileff, HR
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