Endophytic Xylaria (Xylariaceae) among liverworts and angiosperms: phylogenetics, distribution, and symbiosis.
Nuclear ribosomal 18S and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence data were used to identify endophytic fungi cultured from six species of liverworts collected in Jamaica and North Carolina. Comparisons with other published fungal sequences and phylogenetic analyses yielded the following conclusions: (1) the endophytes belong to the ascomycete families Xylariaceae, Hypocreaceae, and Ophiostomataceae, and (2) liverwort endophytes in the genus Xylaria are closely related to each other and to endophytes isolated from angiosperms in China, Puerto Rico, and Europe. Liverwort endophytes are expected to be foragers or endophytic specialists, although little is known about the role of these fungi in symbioses. Features that may indicate a mutualistic role for these endophytes are discussed.
Davis, EC; Franklin, JB; Shaw, AJ; Vilgalys, R
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