Thermodynamic limits to the ATP/site stoichiometries of oxidative phosphorylation by rat liver mitochondria.
From measurements of reactants, products, and the oxidation-reduction state of cytochrome c + c1 during 3-hydroxybutyrate-supported oxidative phosphorylation by rat liver mitochondria at static head (state 4), we determined the free energy change of ATP formation from ADP and Pi (phosphorylation potential or delta GP) and the oxidation-reduction free energy changes (redox potentials or delta GR values) across Sites 1 + 2 (delta GR1 + 2), across Site 3 (delta GR3), and across Sites 1 + 2 + 3 (delta GR). At pH 7.4, -delta GR1 + 2/delta GP, -delta GR3/delta GP, and -delta GR/delta GP were maximally 1.80, 1.56, and 3.37. These can be taken as thermodynamic upper limits to the ATP/Sites 1 + 2, ATP/Site 3, and ATP/O stoichiometry of 3-hydroxybutyrate-supported oxidative phosphorylation. The theory of linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics were employed to estimate lower limits to the ATP/site stoichiometries. The lower limit is given by the expression, q2(-delta GRsite/delta GP). The degree of coupling, q, was 0.977 as determined from the dependence of respiratory rate on delta GP. Determined in this way, lower limits of the ATP/Sites 1 + 2, ATP/Site 3, and ATP/O stoichiometries were 1.67, 1.44, and 3.11, respectively. ADP addition to mitochondria incubated at static head lowered delta GP by 1.1 kcal/mol and stimulated respiration by a factor of about 2.5 but caused negligible changes in delta GR1 + 2 and delta GR3. This observation demonstrates that the respiratory reactions from substrate to cytochrome c and from cytochrome c to oxygen both move away from thermodynamic equilibrium with delta GP during the transition from resting to active oxidative phosphorylation. The findings are discussed in terms of current schemes of chemiosmotic coupling.
Lemasters, JJ; Grunwald, R; Emaus, RK
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