Differential metabolic effects of adenovirus-mediated glucokinase and hexokinase I overexpression in rat primary hepatocytes.
The first step of glucose metabolism is the phosphorylation of glucose, catalyzed by the hexokinase family of enzymes. To address the metabolic impact of increasing glucose phosphorylation capacity in liver, rat primary hepatocytes were treated with recombinant adenoviruses containing the cDNAs encoding either rat liver glucokinase (AdCMV-GKL) or rat hexokinase I (AdCMV-HKI). Maximal glucose phosphorylation in AdCMV-GKL- and AdCMV-HKI-treated hepatocytes was increased 7.1 +/- 1.2- and 6.3 +/- 0.8-fold, respectively, over hepatocytes treated with an adenovirus expressing beta-galactosidase. Glucose usage (measured with 3 and 20 m 2-[3H]glucose and 5-[3H]glucose) was significantly increased in AdCMV-GKL-treated cells preincubated in 1 or 25 mM glucose. Treatment of hepatocytes with AdCMV-HKI also caused enhanced glucose utilization, but the increases were smaller and were less apparent in cells preincubated in high (25 mM) glucose. AdCMV-GKL-treated hepatocytes incubated for 48 h in the presence of variable glucose concentrations had glycogen levels that were maximally 15.0 +/- 0. 6-fold greater than levels in corresponding control cells. AdCMV-HKI-treated hepatocytes incubated under similar conditions had unchanged glycogen levels relative to controls. In AdCMV-GKL-treated cells, lactate output was increased to a maximum of 3.0 +/- 0.4-fold (at 25 mM glucose), glucose oxidation was increased 3.5 +/- 0.3-fold, and triglyceride production was unchanged relative to untreated cells. Among these three parameters, only lactate production was increased in AdCMV-HKI-treated cells, and then only at low glucose concentrations. We conclude that overexpression of glucokinase has potent effects on glucose storage and utilization in hepatocytes and that these effects are not matched by overexpression of hexokinase I.
O'Doherty, RM; Lehman, DL; Seoane, J; Gómez-Foix, AM; Guinovart, JJ; Newgard, CB
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