Studies of phagocytosis in chronic granulomatous disease.
Abnormal phagocyte function in chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is associated with decreased bactericidal activity. Ingestion of serum-opsonized organisms is reported to be normal in these patients. We previously showed that in CGD the expression of C3b receptors (CR1) on polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) is significantly depressed. In this study, we compared the phagocytic activity of the PMNs from normal healthy controls with that of CGD patients and one individual with myeloperoxidase (MPO) deficiency. The ingestion of sheep erythrocytes (E) by PMNs adherent to a glass surface was examined; the E were coated either with excess IgG (E-IgG) or with C3b plus limited IgG (EAC3b-IgG). The PMNs, both in CGD and in MPO deficiency, ingested E-IgG and EAC3b-IgG at levels markedly above normal. C3b-coated erythrocytes were not phagocytosed. Preincubating the PMNs with sodium azide, which blocks MPO, or catalase, a scavenger of H2O2, caused a marked increase in phagocytosis by normal PMNs. Azide had a variable effect on PMN activity in CGD and no effect on the activity in the subject with MPO deficiency. Even in the presence of azide, the ingestion of EAC3b-IgG by the PMNs from the CGD patients was significantly greater than that seen in paired normals [mean phagocytic index (PI), 2.13 for CGD vs. 1.48 for normals; P less than 0.05 by the paired sample t test]. Similar results were obtained with ingestion of E-IgG. Notably, ingestion of serum-opsonized Candida organisms (relatively nondegradable particles) was markedly above normal with CGD PMNs and, in normal PMNs, azide treatment also evoked an increase. In addition, rosette formation of the adhered PMNs with E-IgG was enhanced with CGD and the azide-treated normal PMNs. We demonstrated that this increased activity was not the result of increased Fc receptor (FcR) number, as determined from the binding of a monoclonal anti-FcR antibody. Both the E-IgG rosette formation and the ingestion by CGD PMNs were abrogated in the presence of an H2O2-generating system. In contrast, the phagocytic activity of MPO-deficient PMNs was not altered by exogenous H2O2. These findings suggest that cellular products generated by the H2O2-MPO-halide system down-regulate the rosette-forming and phagocytic activity of PMNs from normal healthy individuals, but not that from CGD and MPO-deficient patients.
Gaither, TA; Medley, SR; Gallin, JI; Frank, MM
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