Expression of specific binding sites on Candida with functional and antigenic characteristics of human complement receptors.
Receptors for C3 degradation fragments (CR1, CR2, and CR3) are present on many human cells including phagocytes and lymphoid cells and may be critical in the attachment of invading microorganisms. In these studies Candida were found to mimic the human CR by binding erythrocytes coated with specific human C3 fragments. Yeast forms of Candida species were adhered to glass slides and were allowed to germinate. Sheep erythrocytes (E) were coated with IgM (EA) and human complement components to prepare EA, EAC14, EAC3b, EAC3bi, and EAC3d. These test cells were then examined for adherence to the organism. Antibodies to human CR1, CR2, and CR3 were used to evaluate their potential for blocking adherence of the test erythrocytes to Candida. Fluorescein-labeled antibodies to human complement receptors were also used to characterize the binding sites. EAC3bi and EAC3d, but not E, EA, or EAC14, bound extensively to the germ tubes and pseudohyphae of Candida albicans and C. stellatoidea. EAC3b bound infrequently. Other Candida species, generally considered less pathogenic, bound significantly fewer specific test erythrocytes than C. albicans. Monoclonal antibodies to human CR1 and CR3 (3D9, 1B4, C511, 2B6, anti-B2, Mo1, and anti-Mac-1), in general, did not block adherence of test erythrocytes. Blocking of adherence of EAC3bi and EAC3d test erythrocytes coated with small quantities of C3 fragments occurred with high concentrations of monoclonal (anti-CR2) HB-5 and polyclonal (anti-CR2) anti-GP 140. Immunofluorescence studies demonstrated binding of Mo-1 to the germinated forms of the organism, whereas binding of the other antibodies was not seen. These studies suggest a surface constituent on the organism similar to CR on human cells. Additional studies are necessary to further define the molecular nature of the binding site. The ability of organisms to mimic human CR may be more generalized than previously known and may serve as a mechanism for modification of the inflammatory and immune response.
Edwards, JE; Gaither, TA; O'Shea, JJ; Rotrosen, D; Lawley, TJ; Wright, SA; Frank, MM; Green, I
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