The effects of IL-1, IL-2, and tumor necrosis factor on polymorphonuclear leukocyte Fc gamma receptor-mediated phagocytosis. IL-2 down-regulates the effect of tumor necrosis factor.
It has been reported that the Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytic activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) from patients with acute bacterial infections is markedly enhanced when compared with healthy controls. Inasmuch as several potent cytokines are known to be involved in inflammatory and infectious processes, we studied the effects of three such cytokines (IL-1 beta, IL-2, and TNF-alpha) on normal PMN Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis. IL-1 beta and TNF alpha both caused a significant increase in the ingestion of EIgG by adherent PMN. In combination, IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha had an additive effect, even when each was used at its optimal concentration. In contrast to the enhancing effects mediated by IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha, IL-2 alone had no significant effect on PMN phagocytosis. Notably, however, IL-2 at a concentration of 10(4) U/ml partially inhibited TNF-alpha-mediated enhancement of phagocytosis by decreasing TNF binding to the PMN cell surface. This inhibitory effect of IL-2 on TNF was reversed by anti-IL-2 antibody and mAb directed against the low affinity IL-2R (anti-Tac), whereas mAb directed against the intermediate affinity receptor (mik-beta 1) had no such effect. These findings may have important physiologic implications, because patients receiving IL-2 therapy have been shown to have increased susceptibility to infection.
Moxey-Mims, MM; Simms, HH; Frank, MM; Lin, EY; Gaither, TA
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